Thursday, May 28, 2020

Mise-en-Page in Medieval Manuscripts

An Introduction to Mise-en-Page Bibliography to accompany the Bibliographical Society of American Webinar (28 May 2020). A link will be posted.

The link for the presentation from 28 May 2020 on mise-en-page (western manuscripts, mostly British, mostly monastic) is here: You Tube Mise-En-Page

Western Manuscript Studies Select Bibliography


Albritton, B., G. Henley, and E. Treharne, eds., Medieval Manuscripts in the Digital Age (London: Routledge, 2020)
Bischoff, B., Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages, trans. Dáibhí O. Cróinín and David Ganz (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990)
Bishop, T. A. M., English Caroline Minuscule, Oxford Palaeographical Handbooks (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971)
Boyle, L. E., Medieval Latin Palaeography: A Bibliographical Introduction, Toronto Medieval Bibliographies 8 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984)
Brown, T. J., A Palaeographer's View: The Selected Writings of Julian Brown, ed. Janet Bately, Michelle P. Brown, and Jane Roberts, with Preface by Albinia C. de la Mare (London: Harvey Miller, 1993)
Brown, M. P., A Guide to Western Historical Scripts from Antiquity to 1600 (London: British Library, 1990)
Brown, M. P., and P. Lovett, The Historical Source Book for Scribes (London: British Library, 1999)
Brown, M. P., The British Library Guide to Writing and Scripts: History and Techniques, The British Library Guides (London: British Library, 1998)
Clemens, Raymond, and Timothy Graham, Introduction to Manuscript Studies (London: Cornell University Press, 2007)
Colker, M. L., ‘Some Recent Works for Palaeographers’, Medievalia et Humanistica 8 (1977): 235-242
Da Rold, O., and E. Treharne, eds., Cambridge Companion to British Medieval Manuscripts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020), espec. Chapter 1: R. Beadle and R. Hanna, ‘Describing and Cataloguing medieval English manuscripts: a checklist’.
Da Rold, O., M. Swan, and E. Treharne, New Medieval Literatures 13 (2012 for 2011)
Da Rold, O., T. Kato, M. Swan, and E. Treharne, The Production and Use of English Manuscripts, Stanford University, 2nd rev. ed. (, 2018)
Denholm-Young, N., Handwriting in England and Wales (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1954)
Dumville, D., English Caroline Script and Monastic History: Studies in Benedictinism, AD 950-1030, Studies in Anglo-Saxon History 6 (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1993)
Gillespie, A., and D. Wakelin, eds., The Production of Books in England c.1350–c.1530 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013
Grieve, H. E. P., Examples of English Handwriting, 1150-1750, Essex Record Office Publications 21 (Chelmsford: Essex Education Committee, 1954)
Hector, L. C., The Handwriting of English Documents, 2nd ed. (London: Edward Arnold, 1966)
Jenkinson, H., The Later Court Hands in England, 2 Vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1927)
Johnson, C., and H. Jenkinson. English Court Hand A.D. 1066-1500, 2 Vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1915)
Knight, S., Historical Scripts: From Classical Times to the Renaissance (New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Books, 1998)
Lowe, E. A., ed. Codices latini antiquiores: A Palaeographical Guide to Latin Manuscripts Prior to the Ninth Century, 12 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1934-1972)
Lowe, E. A., English Uncial (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960)
Parkes, M. B., English Cursive Book Hands, 1250-1500, Oxford Palaeographical Handbooks (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969)
Petti, A. G., English Literary Hands from Chaucer to Dryden (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977)
Prescott, A., and E. Treharne, ‘The Origin and Context of the Salisbury Magna Carta’,
Preston, Jean F., and Laetitia Yeandle, English Handwriting, 1400-1650: An Introductory Manual, Pegasus Paperbooks P6 (Binghamton, NY: Centre for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, 1992)
Rumble, A. R., ‘The Palaeography of the Domesday Manuscripts’, in Domesday Book: A Reassessment, ed. P. Sawyer (London and Baltimore: Edward Arnold, 1985) pp. 28-49
Sawyer, D., Reading English Verse in Manuscript, c.1350-c.1500, Oxford English Monographs (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020)
Sheppard, J. M., The Buildwas Books: Book Production, Acquisition and Use at an English Cistercian Monastery, 1165-c.1400, Oxford Bibliographical Society (Oxford: Bodleian Library, 1997)
Stokes, P. A., and S. Brooks, DigiPal:

Stokes, P. A., Scribal Attribution Across Multiple Scripts’, Speculum (2017), DOI: 10.1086/693968

Thompson, E. Maunde, An Introduction to Greek and Latin Palaeography (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1912)
Thompson, E. Maunde, G. F. Warner, F. G. Kenyon, and J. P. Gilson, et al. eds. Facsimiles of Ancient Manuscripts, The New Palaeographical Society, 2nd series (London: Oxford University Press, 1913-1930)
Thompson, E. Maunde, G. F. Warner, F. G. Kenyon, and J. P. Gilson, eds. Facsimiles of Ancient Manuscripts, The New Palaeographical Society, 1st series (London: Oxford University Press, 1903-1912)
Thomson, S. Harrison, Latin Bookhands of the Later Middle Ages, 1100-1500 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969)
Treharne, E., ‘“The Good, the Bad, the Ugly”: Old English Manuscripts and Their Physical Description’, in Matthew Hussey and John Niles, eds., The Genesis of Books: Studies in the Scribal Culture of Medieval England in Honour of A. N. Doane (Brepols, 2012), pp. 261-83
Treharne, E., ‘Manuscript Production’, in The Encyclopaedia of Medieval Literature in Britain, ed. Sian Echard and Robert Rouse (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017), IV: 2071-78
Treharne, E., ‘Raw Materials: The Role of Palaeography in Medieval Studies’, in Andrew Rabin and Stefan Jurasinki, eds., Languages of the Law in Early Medieval England: Essays in Honor of Lisi Oliver, Mediaevalia Groningana ns 22 (Louvain, Belgium: Peeters, 2019), pp. 155-75
Ullman, B. L. Ancient Writing and its Influence (1932; rpt. Medieval Academy Reprints, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989)
Wright, C. E., English Vernacular Hands from the Twelfth to the Fifteenth Centuries, Oxford Palaeographical Handbooks (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960)

Codicology/ Mise-en-page / Scribal Practices
Arduini, Franca, and Guglielmo Cavallo, The Shape of the Book, from Roll to Codex (3rd Century BC-19th Century AD) (Firenze: Mandragora, 2008)
Bischoff, F. M., and M. Maniaci, ‘Pergament—Handschriftenformate—Lagenkonstruktion’, Scrittura e Civiltà 19 (1995): 277–319
Briquet, C.-M., Les filigranes: dictionnaire historique des marques de papier dès leur apparition vers 1282 jusqu'en 1600 (Geneva: A. Jullien, 1907)
British Library Catalogue of Bookbindings <>
Brown, M., The British Library Guide to Writing and Scripts: History and Techniques (London: The British Library, 1998)
Brown, T. J., ‘The Distribution and Significance of Membrane Prepared in the Insular Manner’, in Le Paléographie Hébraîque Médiévale (Paris, 1974) pp. 127–35.
Brown, T. J., with a technical description of the binding by Roger Powell and Peter Waters, eds., The Stonyhurst Gospel of St John (Oxford: University Press for the Roxburghe Club, 1969)
Busby, Keith, Codex and Context: Reading Old French Verse Narrative in Manuscript, 2 vols. (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2002)
Canart, P. et al., ‘Recherches préliminaires sur les matériaux utilisés pour la réglure en couleur dans les manuscrits grecs et latins’, Scriptorium 45 (1991): 205-225
Clement, R. W., ‘Codicological Considerations in the Beowulf Manuscript’, Proceedings of the Illinois Medieval Association 1 (1984): 13-27
Codex Sinaiticus (London: The British Library): http://>
Dane, Joseph A., ‘On the Shadowy Existence of the Medieval Pricking Wheel’, Scriptorium 50 (1996): 13–21
Da Rold, O., ‘Codicology’, in The Encyclopaedia of Medieval British Literature, ed. S. Echard and R. Rouse (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2017), pp. 531-538
Da Rold, O., ‘Materials’ in The Production of Books in England c.1350–c.1530, edited by A. Gillespie and D. Wakelin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 12-33
Da Rold, O., ‘Paper in Medieval English Books’ in P. O Machain, ed., Paper and the Paper Manuscript: A Context for the Transmission of Gaelic Literature (Cork: University College Cork, 2012), pp. 1-7
Dukan, M., ‘De la difficulté à reconnâitre des instruments de réglure: planche à régler (mastara) et cadre-padron’, Scriptorium 40 (1986): 257-261
Dukan, M., La réglure des manuscrits hébreux au Moyen âge (Paris: Centre regional de publication de Paris, 1988)
Gameson, R., ‘The material fabric of early British books’, in The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, Vol. 1, ed. R. Gameson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011): 11-93. Web. Cambridge Histories Online. 11 May 2020.
Gilissen, L., ‘La Composition des Cahiers, le Pliage du Parchemin et l’Imposition’, Prolégomènes à la Codicologie (Ghent: Éditions Scientifiques Story-Scientia, 1977), pp. 21–44
Gilissen, L., ‘Les réglures des manuscrits’, Scrittura e civilta 5 (1981): 231-252
Gruys, A., and J. P. Gumbert, eds., Codicologica: Towards a Science of Handwritten Books, 5 vols. Litterae textuales (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1976-1980)
Gumbert, J. P., ‘Ruling by Rake and Board: Notes on Some Late Medieval Ruling Techniques’ in P. Ganz, ed., The Role of the Book in Medieval Culture (Turnhout: Brepols, 1986), pp. 41–54
Hanna, R., ‘Booklets in Medieval Manuscripts: Further Considerations’, Studies in Bibliography 39 (1986): 100-111
Hobson, G. D., ‘Some Early Bindings and Binder's Tools’, The Library 19 (1938/9): 202–49
Hobson, G. D., English Binding before 1500 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1929)
Jones, L. W., ‘Where are the Prickings?’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 75 (1944): 71-86
Jones, L. W. ‘Pricking Manuscripts: The Instruments and their Significance’, Speculum 21 (1946): 389–403 
Jones, L. W., ‘Prickings as Clues to Date and Origin: the Eighth Century’, Mediaevalia et Humanistica 14 (1962): 15-22
Ker, N. R., ‘From “Above Top Line” to “Below Top Line”: A Change in Scribal Practice’, in N. Ker, Books, Collectors and Libraries: Studies in Medieval Heritage (London: Hambledon Press, 1985)
Kwakkel, E., ‘The Cultural Dynamics of Medieval Book Production’, in Manuscripten en miniaturen: Studies aangeboden aan Anne S. Korteweg bij haar afscheid van de Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2007) pp. 243–52
Maniaci, M., and P. F. Munafò, Ancient and Medieval Book Materials and Techniques (Vatican: Biblioteca Vaticana Apostolica, 1993)
Maniaci, M., ‘Un repertorio da leggere fra le righe’, Gazette du livre médiéval 28 (1996): 13-22
Marichal, Robert, ‘Du “volume” au “codex”’, in Mise en page et mise en texte du livre manuscrit, ed., H-J. Martin and Jean Vezin (Paris: Editions du Cercle de la Librairie—Promodis, 1990), pp. 45-54.
Mazal, O., ‘Medieval Bookbinding’ in The Book through Five Thousand Years, ed. H. D. L. Vervliet (London: Phaidon, 1972), pp. 314–38
Moorman, Charles, The Statistical Determination of Affiliation in the Landmark Manuscripts of the Canterbury Tales. (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1993)
Muzerelle, D., La machine à rouler…les codicologues!’, Gazette du livre médiéval 31 (1997): 22-30
Muzerelle, D., Vocabulaire codicologique (2003):
Needham, P., Twelve Centuries of Bookbindings, 400–1600 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979)
Nixon, H. M. ‘The Binding of Winton Domesday’, in Winchester in the Early Middle Ages, ed. M. Biddle (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), pp. 526–40
Ornato, E., ed., La Face cachée du livre médiéval: L'Histoire du livre (Rome: Viella, 1997)
Pantin, Isabelle, ‘Mise en page, mise en teste et construction du sens dans le livre moderne’, Melanges de l’Ecole francaise de Rome (2008): 343-61:
Parkes, M. B., ‘The Influence of the Concepts of Ordinatio and Compilatio on the Development of the Book’, in Scribes, Scripts and Readers: Studies in the Communication, Presentation and Dissemination of Medieval Texts, ed. M. B. Parkes (London: Hambledon, 1991), pp. 35-70.
Parkes, M. B., ‘Layout and Presentation of the Text’, in Cambridge History of the Book in Britain 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 55-74
Pearson, D., Books as History: The Importance of Books beyond their Texts (London: British Library, 2011)
Peikola, Matti, ‘Guidelines for Consumption: Scribal Ruling Patterns and Designing the Mise-en page in Later Medieval England’, in Manuscripts and Printed Books in Europe 1350–1550: Packaging, Presentation and Consumption, ed. Emma Cayley and Susan Powell (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2013), pp. 14–31
Pollard, G., ‘Describing Medieval Bookbindings’, in Medieval Learning and Literature: Essays Presented to R.W. Hunt, ed. J. J. G. Alexander, and M. T. Gibson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), pp. 50–65
Pollard, G., ‘Notes on the Size of the Sheet’, The Library, 4th Ser., 22 (1941): 105–37
Pollard, G., ‘Some Anglo-Saxon Bookbindings’, The Book Collector 24 (1975): 130–54
Pollard, G., ‘The Construction of English Twelfth-Century Bindings’. The Library 5th series, 17 (1962): 1–22
Rand, E. K., ‘How Many Leaves as a Time?’, Palaeographia Latina 5 (1927): 52-78
Roberts, Colin H., and T. C. Skeat, The Birth of the Codex (London: Oxford University Press, for the British Academy, 1987)
Robinson, P. R. ‘The “Booklet”: A Self-Contained Unit in Composite Manuscripts’, in Codicologica, ed. A. Gruys, and J. Peter Gumbert (Leiden: Brill, 1980), pp. 46–69
Rosenfeld, R., ‘Pricking Wheels’, Gazette du livre médiéval 37 (2000): 18-25
Rouse, R.H., and M. A. Rouse, ‘Ordinatio and Compilatio Revisited’, in M. D. Jordan and K. Emery, eds, Ad Litteram: Authoritative Texts and their Medieval Readers (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992)
Stinson, T., ‘Codicological Descriptions in the Digital Age’, in Kodikologie und Paläographie im Digitalen Zeitalter - Codicology and Palaeography in the Digital Age, ed. M. Rehbein, P. Sahle, and T. Schaßan (Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2009) pp. 35–51
Stinson, T., ‘Counting Sheep: Potential Applications of DNA Analysis to the Study of Medieval Parchment Production’, in Kodikologie und Paläographie im Digitalen Zeitalter 2, Codicology and Palaeography in the Digital Age 2, ed. Franz Fischer, Christiane Fritz, and Georg Vogeler (Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2011)
Stokes, P. A., ‘Codicology’, in The Literary Encyclopedia, ed. R. Clark, and H. Magennis (2006): < rec=true&UID=1679>
Turner, E. G. The Typology of the Early Codex (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977)
van Regemorter, B., Binding Structures in the Middle Ages: A Selection of Studies (London: Maggs Brothers, 1992)
Wakelin, D., Scribal Correction and Literary Craft: English Manuscripts, 1375-1510 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014)

A few journals
Fragmentology, Digital Medievalist, Digital Philology, Gazette du livre medieval, Manuscript Studies, Scriptorium, Speculum, The Library, Traditio, Viator

Very select online resources

British Library Digitized Manuscripts:

Cambridge, Trinity College, Wren Library:

Design History:

Digital Vatican Library:
Earlier Latin Manuscripts, ELMSS:
E-Codices, Virtual Library of Switzerland’s Manuscripts:
Erik Kwakkel’s Blog, ‘Medieval Books’, especially:
Hand Bookbindings: Plain and Simple to Grand and Glorious <>
John Rylands University Library of Manchester Digital Collections:
Medieval Academy of America Digital Resources:
Parker on the Web (Cambridge, Corpus Christi College manuscripts):

Pricking and Ruling video:

Schoenberg Database of Manuscripts:

Stanford Medieval Fragments collection:
Walters Art Museum Ex Libris:

Please send corrections or additions to Elaine Treharne, Thanks!

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The history of boredom in a time of lockdown

Here's a thread on the etymology of Boredom and its earlier ally, Sloth, that I wrote as a Twitter thread. It's fascinating that boredom wasn't present in English until the eighteenth century. Its etymology is a little peculiar, too.

Bored as a border collie? Get ready to glaze over. Here’s a thread on boredom & English words for a ‘disinclination to action’. First curious thing to know is that a ‘bore’ doesn't exist in English until 1766. /1

Google N-gram for Boredom, Laziness, and Ennui from 1600-2012
‘Boredom’ doesn’t emerge in English until the 19thC with Dickens’s ‘chronic malady of boredom’. The etymology of ‘bore’ is obscure; it may have arisen to describe ‘ennui’, by analogy of being persistently irritated by something; ie with the persistence of boring a hole /2 

‘To bore’ is recorded in 1768 when Earl of Carlisle said: ‘I pity my Newmarket friends, who are to be bored by these Frenchmen.’ In the Oxford English Dictionary, there is also a use in 1535 to ‘bore one’s ears’, which surely offers the best parallel. /3

So, weren't people bored before the leisure heyday in the 18thC? Yes. Boredom is many-faceted. An ironically vibrant semantic field has lassitude, inertia, torpor, sluggishness, inactivity, indolence, enervation, disinclination, lethargy, apathy, listlessness /4

The Oxford English Dictionary reminds us of a term ‘boreism’--‘the practice of being a bore’. George Eliot (hoorah!) wrote: “The male could assert his superiority & show a more vigorous boredom" in an uncanny anticipation of mansplaining. Mansplaining=stultification? Yes, indeed /5

Is boredom in Old Eng. rare? We imagine there was a lot to do to survive daily. But a plethora of terms exist: unrotnes (tedium); æmelnes (weariness); asolcennes (indolence); aswindan (enfeebled, languishing in spirit); æswind (torpor); slæcfull (slackful) /6

‘Wlæc’ is a fav word, meaning lacking in spirit or energy. It's modern ‘wlak’; that is lukewarm, tepid, lacking spirit, languid. A fab OE word is ‘bæftansittende’ (to be sitting behind still), translating Latin ‘reses’--dormant, stationary, idle, immovable /7

Important is ‘Sloth’, from Old Eng ‘slæwð’ (ME ‘sleuðe’). It's the 6th of the 7 (or 8) capital sins (‘acedia’ or ‘accidia’—‘without care’—in Latin). Chaucer’s Parson says: ‘Accidie maketh hym heuy’. It means idle thoughts, or being lazy in worship of God /8
From a tree of Acedia, says 15thC Desert of Religion, comes ‘Gruchyng alswa & drerynes, Langour, wanhope...spredes on ilka syde’. It's dreariness, languor, carelessness, neglect, oblivion, forgetfulness, stupefaction, ‘wanhope’ or ‘insufficient faith’ /9
London, British Library, Harley 3244

The 14thC Piers Plowman, shows Sloth as hideous: 'Then came Sloth all beslobbered with two slimey eyes… What I tell with my tongue is two miles from mine heart. I am occupied each day holidays and other With idle tales in the alehouse & sometimes in churches' /10
John Walton of Osney Abbey translated Boethius in 1410, where he basically says about a slothful person, ‘Call him a lazy ass’: He þat useþ sleuthe and ydelnesse And will noght done no werkes profitable, Thow myght hym calle a verrey asse expresse. /11
Slothfuls end up in hell's snake-pit. As Morrissey sang: ‘The Devil will find work for idle hands to do’. Or, in St Jerome's cheery words, Fac et aliquid operis, ut semper te diabolus inveniat occupatum: Do something so that the Devil always finds you busy /12
London, British Library, Harley 603: The Harley Psalter
The moral of the story is don’t be an asolcena (‘sluggard’), but definitely practice rest, mental relaxation, and idleness because then you get time to think (and read the OED for no particular reason) /13

All these Old English words on ‘sloth’ with impressive subtleties and manifold expressiveness are in the fabulous & searchable Open Access, Open Access, and /En